Broadly speaking, there are two main views on baptism:
- Covenant Baptism (some may call it paedobaptism, because it implies that infants of together with their covenant parents should be baptised). The mode of baptism is sprinkling of water.
- Believers Baptism (some call it credo-baptism, because only those who believe in the Lord Jesus Christ as their Saviour are baptised, usually adults. The mode of baptism is immersion into water.
This paper explores the Presbyterian understanding of Covenant Baptism.
Covenant Theology represents an understanding that there is unity between the Old and the New Testaments. What is promised on unfulfilled in the Old Testament are fulfilled in the New Testament – one is not possible without the other. The New Testament thus does not replace the Old testament; neither does it exist as a separate part of the Bible alongside the Old Testament.
“All the prophets testify about Him [Jesus Christ] that everyone who believes in Him receives forgiveness of sins through his name.” (Acts 10:43)
“Then He opened their minds so they could understand the Scriptures. He told them, ‘This is what is written: The Messiah will suffer and rise from the dead on the third day, and repentance for the forgiveness of sins will be preached in his name to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem.’” (Luke 24:45–47)
The church of the New Testament is not a separate entity from the church of the Old Testament, but a continuation of it, albeit in more glorious form. The ceremonial signs of the rituals of the Old Testament found their fulfilment in the Person of Jesus Christ and have ceased after the cross and resurrection of our Lord. However, what they signalled still stand, but now understood in and through the Head of the new covenant and his perfect work as Priest, Prophet and King.
Therefore, remember that formerly you who are Gentiles by birth and called “uncircumcised” by those who call themselves “the circumcision” (which is done in the body by human hands)—remember that at that time you were separate from Christ, excluded from citizenship in Israel and foreigners to the covenants of the promise, without hope and without God in the world.Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and strangers, but fellow citizens with God’s people and also members of his household. (Ephesians 2:11-12, 19)
“Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. (Matthew 5:17, NIV)
But when Christ came as high priest of the good things that are now already here, he went through the greater and more perfect tabernacle that is not made with human hands, that is to say, is not a part of this creation. He did not enter by means of the blood of goats and calves; but he entered the Most Holy Place once for all by his own blood, thus obtaining eternal redemption. The blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a heifer sprinkled on those who are ceremonially unclean sanctify them so that they are outwardly clean. How much more, then, will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself unblemished to God, cleanse our consciences from acts that lead to death, so that we may serve the living God! (Hebrews 9:11–14, NIV)
Jesus did not come to rip up the Old Testament, He came to fulfil it. As a matter of fact, during his ministry He very often used the Scriptures of the Old Testament as his authority.
The church of the both the Old and the New Testament (Israel) has Abraham as father. God made a covenant with him after He called him out of the slavery of sin.
“I will make you into a great nation, and I will bless you; I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you I will curse; and all peoples on earth will be blessed through you.” (Genesis 12:1–3)
“There is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus. If you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise.” (Galatians 3:28–29)
God’s promise to Abraham states clearly that through Abraham the nations and peoples of the earth will be blessed. This was made possible through the death and resurrection of Christ and by the outpouring of the Holy Spirit.
So then, he [Abraham] is the father of all who believe but have not been circumcised, in order that righteousness might be credited to them. And he is then also the father of the circumcised who not only are circumcised but who also follow in the footsteps of the faith that our father Abraham had before he was circumcised. (Romans 4:11–12)
About the covenant God further said that it will be for the generations of Abraham as an everlasting covenant.
“I will establish my covenant as an everlasting covenant between me and you and your descendants after you for the generations to come, to be your God and the God of your descendants after you.” (Genesis 17:7)
“Therefore, the promise comes by faith, so that it may be by grace and may be guaranteed to all Abraham’s offspring—not only to those who are of the law but also to those who have the faith of Abraham. He is the father of us all.” (Romans 4:16) (The the “promise” in this verse is reference to the covenant – see also Acts 2:39, Eph 2:12)
The Bible is clear about the fact that this covenant is not one of works, but one of grace.
“Under what circumstances was it [his righteousness] credited? Was it after he was circumcised, or before? It was not after, but before!” (Romans 4:10)
The sign of the covenant in the Old Testament was circumcision.
“This is my covenant with you and your descendants after you, the covenant you are to keep: Every male among you shall be circumcised. You are to undergo circumcision, and it will be the sign of the covenant between me and you.” (Genesis 17:10–11)
Abraham had not be circumcised when God gave him the sign, so not Ishmael and other men in his household. They were all circumcised after God commanded it: Abraham being 99 years of age, Ishmael 13 and later Isaac on the eight day.
“On that very day Abraham took his son Ishmael and all those born in his household or bought with his money, every male in his household, and circumcised them, as God told him. Abraham was ninety-nine years old when he was circumcised, and his son Ishmael was thirteen; Abraham and his son Ishmael were both circumcised on that very day. And every male in Abraham’s household, including those born in his household or bought from a foreigner, was circumcised with him.” (Genesis 17:23–27)
First then, those who had not been circumcised before God instituted the sign were circumcised, irrespective of their age; later, all males born into a family were circumcised on the eight day – which means that the circumcision was later almost exclusively administered to babies boys, apart from cases where new convert families were added.
To not keep this ritual meant breaking the covenant.
“Any uncircumcised male, who has not been circumcised in the flesh, will be cut off from his people; he has broken my covenant.” (Genesis 17:14)
Even when Moses neglected this ordinance God became angry with him and wanted to kill him.
“At a lodging place on the way, the Lord met Moses and was about to kill him. But Zipporah took a flint knife, cut off her son’s foreskin and touched Moses’ feet with it. ‘Surely you are a bridegroom of blood to me,’ she said. So the Lord let him alone. (At that time she said ‘bridegroom of blood,’ referring to circumcision.)” (Exodus 4:24–26)
The other sacrament the Lord gave his people, was the sign of blood of the Passover lamb. Both the sign of circumcision and Passover were signs accompanied by blood and pointed forward to the blood of Christ, God’s Passover Lamb.
Exodus 12. Numerous other parts of the Old Testament. This was a perpetual sacrament which was later replaced by the Lord’s Supper.
Those who converted to the God of Israel from other religions, together with the males in their household, including infant boys, had to be circumcised before they were allowed to partake in the Passover.
“A foreigner residing among you who wants to celebrate the Lord’s Passover must have all the males in his household circumcised; then he may take part like one born in the land. No uncircumcised male may eat it.” (Exodus 12:48, NIV)
As with many things during the time of the Old Testament which were incomplete, and about all sacrifices were accompanied by blood, or alternatively, by water – water being the sign of ritual cleansing. Circumcision was sign of initiation into the Old Covenant and was a sign of blood (Genesis 17:10) It was done once. The New Testament replacement of this sing was baptism, a bloodless sign. The sign was replaced, while the covenant remained.:
In Him you were also circumcised with a circumcision not performed by human hands. Your whole self ruled by the flesh was put off when you were circumcised by Christ, having been buried with Him in baptism, in which you were also raised with Him through your faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead. (Colossians 2:11–12, NIV)
Peter replied, “Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. The promise is for you and your children and for all who are far off—for all whom the Lord our God will call.” (Acts 2:38–39, NIV)
The Passover Lamb was the perpetual sign, done repeatedly, and was a sign of blood (Exodus 12:22). The New Testament replacement is The Lord’s Supper, a bloodless sign:
Then he took a cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you. This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. (Matthew 26:27–28, NIV)
The Greek work used in some verses of the Old Testament does not indicate immersion, but sprinkling.
“Immediately the word was fulfilled against Nebuchadnezzar. He was driven from among men and ate grass like an ox, and his body was wet with the dew (bapto) of heaven till his hair grew as long as eagles’ feathers, and his nails were like birds’ claws.” (Daniel 4:33)
Purification acts in the Old Testament were done by sprinkling or washing, and is some cases “bapto” is used. This washing did not include washing with soap and water to physically clean hands or feet or body, but signalled purification.
“Then the anointed priest is to take some of the bull’s blood into the tent of meeting. He shall dip his finger into the blood and sprinkle it before the Lord seven times in front of the curtain.” (Leviticus 4:16–17)
A priest in the Old Testament took blood of an animal and “sprinkled” it on the altar to ceremonially cleanse it.
“Then the anointed priest shall take some of the bull’s blood and carry it into the tent of meeting. He is to dip his finger into the blood and sprinkle some of it seven times before the Lord, in front of the curtain of the sanctuary.” (Leviticus 4:5–6) [This act of the priest happened consistently with all offerings.]
“The blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a heifer sprinkled on those who are ceremonially unclean sanctify them so that they are outwardly clean.” (Hebrews 9:13).
Any person who touched a corpse had to cleanse himself. For the Israelite this happened in the courtyard of the Tabernacle where there was a big bronze holding basin (Exodus 30:17-21). The ritual was done by sprinkling, not immersion – and yet the word used is “bapto”
“When one of them dies and falls on something, that article, whatever its use, will be unclean, whether it is made of wood, cloth, hide or sackcloth. Put it in water; it will be unclean till evening, and then it will be clean.” (Leviticus 11:32)
When Naaman of Aram came to see Elisha he had to purify himself by washing himself in the Jordan. This is exactly what God commanded in Leviticus 14:7
“Seven times he shall sprinkle the one to be cleansed of the defiling disease, and then pronounce them clean. After that, he is to release the live bird in the open fields.” (Leviticus 14:7)
In the New Testament “bapto/baptitso” is interchangeably used for another Greek word “nipto”, meaning “cleanse”. For those who were still Jews this washing had ceremonial meaning: unbaptised hands were unclean hands.
“The Pharisees and all the Jews do not eat unless they give their hands a ceremonial washing, holding to the tradition of the elders.” (Mark 7:3, NIV)
But the Pharisee was surprised when he noticed that Jesus did not first wash before the meal. (Luke 11:38, NIV) (His hands were “unbaptised!)
Not all instances of the word “baptise” or “baptism” in the New Testament mean to immerse. In fact, more often than not the word has a spiritual meaning.
For I do not want you to be ignorant of the fact, brothers and sisters, that our ancestors were all under the cloud and that they all passed through the sea. (1 Corinthians 10:1, NIV)
… long ago when God waited patiently in the days of Noah while the ark was being built. In it only a few people, eight in all, were saved through water, and this water symbolises baptism that now saves you also—not the removal of dirt from the body but the pledge of a clear conscience toward God. It saves you by the resurrection of Jesus Christ, (1 Peter 3:20–21, NIV)
They replied, “Let one of us sit at your right and the other at your left in your glory.” “You don’t know what you are asking,” Jesus said. “Can you drink the cup I drink or be baptized with the baptism I am baptized with?” (Mark 10:37–38, NIV)
Charles Hodge, renowned theologian comments: “But the Egyptians who were immersed were not baptised; and the Israelites who were baptised were not immersed.”
When believers in the New Testament were baptised by the Holy Spirit they were not immersed but filled. Even the tongues of fire which sat on them pointed to the purifying “sprinkling” of the promised Spirit of Ezekiel 36:
I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your impurities and from all your idols. I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit in you; I will remove from you your heart of stone and give you a heart of flesh. And I will put my Spirit in you and move you to follow my decrees and be careful to keep my laws. (Ezekiel 36:25–27, NIV)
The baptism of John was not the baptism which Jesus commanded. John did not baptise in the Name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. John was the last Old Testament prophet, preparing the people for the arrival of the New Testament period. John called the people of God to repent; he did not baptise them to become part of the people of God.
“From this man’s descendants God has brought to Israel the Savior Jesus, as he promised. Before the coming of Jesus, John preached repentance and baptism to all the people of Israel. As John was completing his work, he said: ‘Who do you suppose I am? I am not the one you are looking for. But there is one coming after me whose sandals I am not worthy to untie.’ (Acts 13:23–25, NIV)
Those who were baptised with the baptism of John were re-baptised, because they were not baptised in the Name of the Holy Spirit.
[Paul] asked them, “Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?” They answered, “No, we have not even heard that there is a Holy Spirit.” So Paul asked, “Then what baptism did you receive?” “John’s baptism,” they replied. Paul said, “John’s baptism was a baptism of repentance. He told the people to believe in the one coming after him, that is, in Jesus.” On hearing this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. (Acts 19:2–5, NIV)
As commanded by Jesus after He completed his mission (death and resurrection, and gave the disciples the promise of the Holy Spirit, for whom they had to wait before they started their mission to the world, the apostles introduced the New Testament baptism as a sign of Covenant at Pentecost when people were baptised. On Pentecost Day and after Jews who had been circumcised previously were baptised. To understand New Testament baptism, we should not start with John, but with the command of the risen Lord Jesus Christ.
God in the Old Testament made promises of a new era to come, when the Sprit of God would be poured out and the sins of the people would be forgiven. The work of the Holy Sprit is connected with purification and rebirth. He is “poured out” on the people, “put in” the hearts, like oil on the head of the anointed prophets and kings.
I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your impurities and from all your idols. I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit in you; I will remove from you your heart of stone and give you a heart of flesh. And I will put my Spirit in you and move you to follow my decrees and be careful to keep my laws. (Ezekiel 36:25–27, NIV) See also Ezek 37:14, 39:29, Isaiah 44:3, Jeremiah 33:8, Joel 2:28-29.
Both the work of Christ, who gave his blood to wash away our sins, and the work of the Holy Spirit comes together in this verse:
Therefore, brothers, since we have confidence to enter the Most Holy Place by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way opened for us through the curtain, that is, his body, and since we have a great priest over the house of God, let us draw near to God with a sincere heart and with the full assurance that faith brings, having our hearts sprinkled to cleanse us from a guilty conscience and having our bodies washed with pure water. (Hebrews 10:19–22, NIV)
When on Pentecost the Holy Spirit was poured out the promises of a new era came into being. What was symbolised by ritual washings of purification, and what was promised about a new heart and a new spirit was fulfilled on that day. The Spirit was promised: “I baptise you with water for repentance. But after me comes one who is more powerful than I, whose sandals I am not worthy to carry. He will baptise you with the Holy Spirit and fire. (Matthew 3:11, NIV)
Peter explained to the people that Joel 2:28-32 was fulfilled. The pouring out of the Spirit took place. This pouring out had to do with cleansing and rebirth. In Acts 1:8 it was called “receive”; in other places it is referred to as being “filled with the Spirit” (Acts 9:17) They were baptised with the Holy Spirit which symbolically sat like flames on their heads, symbolising the cleansing of the Spirit in the same way as the sprinkling of the water in the Old Testament signified.
So in Christ Jesus you are all children of God through faith, for all of you who were baptised into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. There is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus. If you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise. (Galatians 3:26–29, NIV)
- In Peter’s sermon on Pentecost day things are connected:
- All the promises regarding the Messiah were fulfilled in Christ
- Forgiveness of sins is possible because Jesus Christ died and was raised from the dead
- Rebirth is possible because the Holy Spirit was poured out (or put in the hearts of the people/the people received the Him
- Repentance of sin is necessary (Acts 2:38)
- Baptism as a sign of inclusion into the Covenant family of God was necessary (Acts 2:39
- As with the Old Testament Covenant, children were included into the covenant by the sign and seal of baptism (Acts 2:39
- Now more than just the Jewish people are included (Acts 2:39)
- God anointed all his people to be priests, prophets and kings by giving them his Holy Spirit.
Three thousand people were baptised on Pentecost Day. In keeping with what is taught in the Old Testament about “cleansing” and receiving the Holy Spirit, it is reasonable to assume the following:
- The three thousand were not immersed in water. The sign of being received in the family of God was by sprinkling of water.
- The place where the people gathered when they received the Spirit was most probably not too far from the temple courts (Acts 2:46; 3:2,8; 5:20-21,25,42; 24:18; 26:21). Jerusalem was a city with very scarce water supplies which depended upon rainwater stored in tanks and cisterns. To assume that they were immersed is to read back into the text.
As in the time of the institution of the circumcision as the sign of the Covenant in the Old Testament, when those who had not been circumcised were circumcised, irrespective of their age, so those baptised in the New Testament were mainly adults. Whole families were baptised in the New Testament. Every Covenant God ever made with his people included children: Adam, Noah, Abraham and Moses.
- Of the Ethiopian: As they traveled along the road, they came to some water and the eunuch said, “Look, here is water. What can stand in the way of my being baptised?” (Acts 8:36, NIV) The text states that it was a desert road. The water referred to in this text could not have been a lot. It stretches the text to assume that the Ethiopian was immersed. It is fair to note that the expression “with” in Greek could in certain contexts be translated as “in”.
- Of Paul: Immediately, something like scales fell from Saul’s eyes, and he could see again. He got up and was baptised (Acts 9:18, NIV). As Paul was baptised in the house of Judas in Straight Street in Damascus at a time when there were no other water supply than from wells or cisterns, it seems logic to assume that Paul was not immersed.
- Of Cornelius: “Surely no one can stand in the way of their being baptised with water. They have received the Holy Spirit just as we have.” So he ordered that they be baptised in the name of Jesus Christ. Then they asked Peter to stay with them for a few days. (Acts 10:47–48, NIV) Cornelius, his relatives and close friends were all were gathered in the house. Could they have been immersed when they were baptised. In what? Who were the relatives? Only adults, but it might have included whole families of his relatives.
- Of the jailer: They replied, “Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved—you and your household.” Then they spoke the word of the Lord to him and to all the others in his house. At that hour of the night the jailer took them and washed their wounds; then immediately he and all his household were baptised. (Acts 16:31–33, NIV) The context leads us to believe that every person in the family of the jailer were baptised – this is in keeping with what happened with covenant families in the Old Testament. Further, they were still in the building of the prison when they were baptised; immersion could hardly take place there.
- Of Lydia: When she and the members of her household were baptised, she invited us to her home. “If you consider me a believer in the Lord,” she said, “come and stay at my house.” And she persuaded us. (Acts 16:15, NIV). In all fairness, they were near a river and could have been immersed. This however would be out of step with the rest. Besides, it included the members of her household, which could have included children.
In the old Jewish Church every proselyte from the heathen brought his children into the Church with him. If only one of the parents is a Christian, the children are said to be “holy,” or “saints,” which is a common designation of church members in the New Testament.
For the unbelieving husband has been sanctified through his wife, and the unbelieving wife has been sanctified through her believing husband. Otherwise your children would be unclean, but as it is, they are holy. (1 Corinthians 7:14, NIV)
Baptism in the early church, as we have seen, happened in the most unusual places and circumstances. As the Gospel spread and congregations developed and they gathered under the leadership of elders and ministers, whether in house churches or dedicated buildings, it become custom to administer the sacraments when the covenant people of God, the congregation was gathered. Administering the sacraments was never meant to be something private; it would destroy the covenantal character of the family of God.
It is therefore proper that baptisms should be administered within the worship service, where the whole covenant family of the Lord can witness it, rejoice in it and vow to accept and to set a Christian example to those who are baptised.
Practise in the Reformed Churches all over the world, which also do not subscribe to paedo communion, is that children of believing parents are baptised, but are not given the right to sit at the Table of the Lord. They are baptised members, but not communicant members. Only after they have made profession of their faith in the Lord in the gathered community of the Lord, do they become communicant members, giving them access to the Table of the Lord.
It is therefore the task of the whole congregation, but more specifically the parents to train their children up in the understanding of the Bible. They need to understand the call of the Gospel based on God’s promises to them once made when they were baptised.
Baptism does not saved anyone, but provides the basis for the promises of God as seal and sign of his grace to be accepted when baptised members reach a stage when they can understand, and indeed, give public testimony that they believe in the Lord Jesus Christ as their Saviour and that they commit their lives to service in his church.
Sessions are also tasked with the responsibility to see that training take place, and that other activities are put in place to nurture their baptised members into communicant members.
Only those who profess Jesus Christ as Lord of their lives, who repented of their sin, whose desire it is to walk in accordance of the Word of God, led by the Holy Spirit, may be baptised. Their children should be baptised too, as we saw above. No baptism should take place before the Session is satisfied that these requirements are met.
The Presbyterian Church of Australia has as confessional document The Westminster Confession of Faith. It states:
Not only those that do actually profess faith in and obedience unto Christ, but also the infants of one, or both, believing parents, are to be baptised
Ministers of the Presbyterian Church, when they are licensed or ordained and inducted to a charge make certain vows. One of them is:
Do you own and accept the Westminster Confession of Faith, as amended by the General Assembly, and read in the light of the Declaratory Statement contained in the Basis of Union adopted by this Church on the 24th day of July, 1901, as an exhibition of the sense in which you understand the Holy Scriptures, and as a confession of your faith; and do you engage firmly and constantly to adhere thereto, and to the utmost of your power to assert maintain and defend the same?
At the last General Assembly (2013) of the Presbyterian Church of Australia, at which all congregations are represented through their presbyteries, the Assembly reaffirmed the following:
Motion 83: “That the Assembly: Declare that the understanding and practice of infant baptism is so integral to the history, the purity of worship and the structure of covenant theology in the westminster confession of Faith that no potential office bearer should sign the formula if the Church’s stance on infant baptism is not accepted. Furthermore, those who have signed it but hold exclusively to credobaptistic views should remain silent on their views or resign.”
As minister of the Presbyterian Church of Australia, I signed the declaration which states that I understand the Westminster Confession of Faith as an exhibition of the sense in which I understand the Holy Scriptures, and as a confession of my faith. I vowed to engage firmly and constantly to adhere thereto, and to the utmost of my power to assert maintain and defend it. I am bound, not only by my conscience and understanding of the Scriptures, but also to the vows I made before God when I became minister of this Church, and once again when I was inducted into this charge.
It would be dishonest of me to do otherwise. I therefore would find it impossible to administer the Sacrament of Baptism in a different manner, or by a different mode.